Friday, September 4, 2020

CIRCULATION

 

What is circulation?????

The path of our movement can be conceived as the perceptual thread that links the spaces of a building, or any series of interior or exterior spaces, together. Since we move in Time through a Sequence of Spaces we experience a space in relation to where we’ve been and where we anticipate going. This artical presents building’s circulation system as positive elements that affect our perception of the forms and spaces of the building.

Main circulation elements :

1) Approach (The Distant View) :
Prior to actually passing into the interior of a building, we approach its entrance along a path. This is the first phase of the circulation system, during which we are prepared to see, experience, and use the spaces within a building.
The approach to a building and its entrance may vary in duration from a few paces through a compressed space to a lengthy and circuitous route. It may be perpendicular to the primary facade of a building or be oblique to it. The nature of the approach may contrast with what is confronted at its termination, or it may be continued on into the building’s interior sequence of spaces, obscuring the distinction between inside and outside.
a) Frontal:
A frontal approach leads directly to the entrance of a building along a straight, axial path. The visual goal that terminates the approach is clear; it may be the entire front facade of a building or an elaborated entrance within the plane.
b) Oblique:
An oblique approach enhances the effect of perspective on the front facade and form of a building. The path can be redirected one or more times to delay and prolong the sequence of the approach. If a building is approached at an extreme angle, its entrance can project beyond its facade to be more clearly visible.
c) Spiral:
A spiral path prolongs the sequence of the approach and emphasizes the three-dimensional form of a building as we move around its perimeter. 
The building entrance might be viewed intermittently during the approach to clarify its position or it may be hidden until the point of arrival.

2) Entrance (From Outside to Inside) :
   Entering a building, a room within a building, or a defined field of exterior space, involves the act of penetrating a vertical plane that distinguishes one space from another and,
separates ”here” from “there.” The act of entering can be signified in more subtle ways than punching a hole in a wall. It may be a passage through an implied plane established by two pillars or an overhead beam. In situations where greater visual and spatial continuity between two spaces is desired, even a change in level can establish a threshold and,
mark the passage from one place to another. In the normal situation where a wall is used to define and enclose a space or series of spaces, an entrance is accommodated by an opening in the plane of the wall. The form of the opening, however, can range from a simple hole in the wall to an elaborate, articulated gateway.
*The notion of an entrance can be visually reinforced by:
• making the opening lower, wider, or narrower than anticipated
• making the entrance deep or circuitous
• articulating the opening with ornamentation or decorative embellishment

3) Configuration of the Path (The Sequence of Spaces) :
All paths of movement, whether of people, cars, goods, or services, are linear in nature. And all paths have a starting point, from which we are taken through a sequence of spaces to our destination. The contour of a path depends on our mode of transportation. While we as pedestrians can turn, pause, stop, and rest at will, a bicycle has less freedom, and a car even less, in changing its pace and direction abruptly. Interestingly though, while a wheeled vehicle may require a path with smooth contours that reflect its turning radius, the width of the path can be tailored tightly to its dimensions. Pedestrians, on the other hand, although
able to tolerate abrupt changes in direction, require a greater volume of space than their bodily dimensions and greater freedom of choice along a path.
The nature of the configuration of a path both influences and is influenced by the organizational pattern of the spaces it links. The configuration of a path may reinforce a spatial organization by paralleling its pattern. Or the configuration may contrast with the form of the spatial organization and serve as a visual counterpoint to it. Once we are able to map out in our minds the overall configuration of the paths in a building, our orientation within the building and our understanding of its spatial layout will be made clear.
a) Linear
All paths are linear. A straight path, however, can be the primary organizing element for a series of spaces. In addition, it can be curvilinear or segmented, intersect other paths, have branches, or form a loop.
b) Radial
A radial configuration has linear paths extending from or terminating at a central, common point.
c) Spiral
A spiral configuration is a single, continuous path that originates from a central point, revolves around it, and becomes increasingly distant from it.
d) Grid
A grid configuration consists of two sets of parallel paths that intersect at regular intervals and create square or rectangular fields of space.
e) Network
A network configuration consists of paths that connect established points in space
f) Composite
In reality, a building normally employs a combination of the preceding patterns. Important points in any pattern are centers of activity, entrances to rooms and halls, and places for vertical circulation provided by stairways, ramps, and elevators.

4) Path-space Relationships (Edges, Nodes, and Terminations of the Path) :
Paths may be related to the spaces they link in the following ways. They may :
a) Pass by Spaces:
• The integrity of each space is maintained.
• The configuration of the path is flexible.
• Mediating spaces can be used to link the path with the spaces.
b) Pass through Spaces:
• The path may pass though a space axially, obliquely, or along its edge.
• In cutting through a space, the path creates patterns of rest and movement within it
c) Terminate in a Space:
• The location of the space establishes the path.
• This path-space relationship is used to approach and enter functionally or symbolically important spaces.

5) Form of the Circulation Space (Corridors, Halls, Galleries, Stairways and Rooms) :
Spaces for movement form an integral part of any building organization and occupy a significant amount of the volume of a building. If considered merely as functional linking devices, then circulation paths would be endless, corridor-like spaces. The form and scale of a circulation space, however, should accommodate the movement of people as they promenade, pause, rest, or take in a view along a path.
The form of a circulation space varies according to how :
• its boundaries are defined;
• its form relates to the form of the spaces it links;
• its qualities of scale, proportion, light, and view are articulated;
• entrances open onto it; and
• it handles changes in level with stairs and ramps.
A circulation space may be:
a) Enclosed
Forming a public galleria or private corridor that relates to the spaces it links though entrances in a wall plane;
b) Open on One Side
Forming a balcony or gallery that provides visual and spatial continuity with the spaces it links.
c) Open on Both Sides
Forming a colonnaded passageway that becomes a physical extension of the space it passes through. The width and height of a circulation space should be proportionate with the type and amount of movement it must handle. A distinction in scale should be established between a public promenade, a more private hall, and a service corridor.

REFERENCE : FRANCIS D.K. CHING (FORM, SPACE, & ORDER)

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