Villa Savoye is a modernist villa in Poissy, on the outskirts of Paris, France.
Owner : French Government
Le Corbusier and his cousin, Pierre Jeanneret Charles-Edouard Jeanneret (6 October 1887 – 27 August 1965), known as Le Corbusier was a Swiss-French architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture. He was born in Switzerland and became a French citizen in 1930. His career spanned five decades, and he designed buildings in Europe, Japan, India, and North and South America. Pierre Jeanneret (22 March 1896 – 4 December 1967) was a Swiss architect who collaborated with his cousin, Charles Edouard Jeanneret, for about twenty years.
“the house is a machine for living in.”
• A modernist villa in poissy; the outskirts of Paris.
• As the last purist villa, it is an attempt of reconciliation between the Platonic attributes of nature and man.
• Designed and constructed between 1929 and 1931 by Le Corbusier and his cousin, Pierre Jeanneret.
• Named “Les Heures Claires” by Le Corbusier.
• Commissioned as a private country residence by Pierre and Emilie Savoye in 1928. They came from a wealthy Parisian family that ran a large and successful insurance company and owned land in the town of Poissy.
• Le Corbusier noted that his clients were: ‘quite without preconceptions, either old or new’ and only had a vague idea of what their future country house should look like.
• Is recognized as the most faithful to his five points of architecture.
• The Villa has become an icon of Le Corbusier’s ideals and methodology.
Site : • Grove of trees shields from strong winds, while allowing sunlight
• Patio receives breeze from SW in summer. It is sheltered from cold NW wind in winter.
Architectural style : Modernist, International
Located at : Poissy, Yvelines, France.
Construction started : 1929
Construction completed : 1931
• Purist and cubist approach
• First floor deliberately raised off of the ground so that it (as Le Corbusier put it) will be out of the wetness and damp of the earth, raising its gardens as well to provide healthy and dry garden space.
• The textures, materials, colours and methods of emphasis of the horizontality, juxtaposed with the upward climb of the ramp and staircase combine to create an atmosphere that draws the visitor through the space.
• Facade reduced to a screening function, a skin, lending to a feeling of the structure being lighter or weightless, a principle heavily looked at by the Bauhaus at that time.
The design features of the Villa Savoye include :
•“The Five Points of Architecture”
• Modular design - the result of Le Corbusier’s research into mathematics, architecture (the golden section), and human proportion.
• No historical ornament
• Abstract sculptural design
• Pure color - white on the outside, a color with associations of newness, purity, simplicity, and health (Le Corbusier earlier wrote a book entitled, When the Cathedrals were White), and planes of subtle color in the interior living areas.
• Dynamic , non-traditional transitions between floors - spiral staircases and ramps.
• Integral garage - the curve of the ground floor of the house is based on the turning radius of the 1927 Citroen.
• Inspiration from greek architecture - basic elements of classical architecture transformed.
• Inspiration from steam ships and locomotives.
Villa Savoye is an exploration in the use of primary forms, using rectangles, cylinders, and cubes. Le Corbusier started with a cubic volume and eroded elements to create the final form. Villa Savoye takes structural inspiration from the Domino Structure, characterized by planar slabs connected by a dogleg staircase. In the Villa Savoye, a ramp was added along with the staircase.
Five main building elements :
1) Pilotis :
2) Free facade :