LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

What is Landscape Architecture ??

      Landscape architecture is a multi-disciplinary field, incorporating aspects of botany, horticulture, the fine arts, architecture, industrial design, soil sciences, environmental psychology, geography, ecology, civil engineering and urban design. The activities of a landscape architect can range from the creation of public parks and parkways to site planning for campuses and corporate office parks, from the design of residential estates to the design of civil infrastructure and the management of large wilderness areas or reclamation of degraded landscapes such as mines or landfills.


       Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioural, or aesthetic outcomes. It involves the systematic investigation of existing social, ecological, and soil conditions and processes in the landscape, and the design of interventions that will produce the desired outcome. The scope of the profession includes landscape design; site planning; stormwater management; erosion control; environmental restoration; parks and recreation planning; visual resource management; green infrastructure planning and provision; and private estate and residence landscape master planning and design; all at varying scales of design, planning and management. A practitioner in the profession of landscape architecture is called a landscape architect.


      Landscape architects work on structures and external spaces with limitations toward the landscape or park aspect of the design – large or small, urban, suburban and rural, and with "hard" (built) and "soft" (planted) materials, while integrating ecological sustainability. 
      The most valuable contribution can be made at the first stage of a project to generate ideas with technical understanding and creative flair for the design, organization, and use of spaces. The landscape architect can conceive the overall concept and prepare the master plan, from which detailed design drawings and technical specifications are prepared. 
      They can also review proposals to authorize and supervise contracts for the construction work. Other skills include preparing design impact assessments, conducting environmental assessments and audits, and serving as an expert witness at inquiries on land use issues.


HISTORY

             The practice of landscape architecture spread from the Old to the New World. The term "landscape architect" was used as a professional title by Frederick Law Olmsted in the United States in 1863 and Andrew Jackson Downing, another early American landscape designer, was editor of The Horticulturist magazine (1846–52).  
           In 1841 his first book, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America, was published to a great success; it was the first book of its kind published in the United States. During the latter 19th century, the term landscape architect begun to be used by professional landscapes designers, and was firmly established after Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. and Beatrix Jones with others founded the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) in 1899. IFLA was founded at Cambridge, England, in 1948 with Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe as its first president, representing 15 countries from Europe and North America. Later, in 1978, IFLA's Headquarters were established in Versailles.

                                                              Frederick Law Olmsted

FIELDS OF ACTIVITY :

                                                              Royal botanical garden
  • Sustainable development.
  • Stormwater management including rain gardens, green roofs, groundwater recharge, green infrastructure, and constructed wetlands.
  • Landscape design for educational function and site design for public institutions and government facilities.
  • Parks, botanical gardens, arboretums, greenways, and nature preserves.
  • Recreation facilities, such as playgrounds, golf courses, theme parks and sports facilities.
  • Housing areas, industrial parks and commercial developments.
  • Estate and residence landscape planning and design.
  • Landscaping and accents on highways, transportation structures, bridges, and transit corridors.
  • Contributions to urban design, town and city squares, waterfronts, pedestrian schemes.
  • Natural park, tourist destination, and recreating historical landscapes, and historic garden appraisal and conservation studies.
  • Reservoirs, dams, power stations, reclamation of extractive industry applications or major industrial projects and mitigation.
  • Environmental assessment and landscape assessment, planning advice and land management proposals.

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