Saturday, December 28, 2019

FAMOUS ARCHITECTS

1. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe:



Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies; March 27, 1886 – August 17, 1969) was a German-American architect. He was commonly referred to as Mies, his surname. Along with Alvar Aalto, Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius and Frank Lloyd Wright, he is regarded as one of the pioneers of modernist architecture.
Mies was the last director of the Bauhaus, a seminal school in modern architecture. After Nazism's rise to power, with its strong opposition to modernism (leading to the closing of the Bauhaus itself), Mies emigrated to the United States. He accepted the position to head the architecture school at the Armour Institute of Technology (later the Illinois Institute of Technology), in Chicago.


Mies sought to establish his own particular architectural style that could represent modern times just as Classical and Gothic did for their own eras. He created his own twentieth-century architectural style, stated with extreme clarity and simplicity. His mature buildings made use of modern materials such as industrial steel and plate glass to define interior spaces, as also conducted by other modernist architects in the 1920s and 1930s such as Richard Neutra.

Famous Project: Fransworth House



2. Zaha Hadid:




      Dame Zaha Mohammad Hadid DBE RA (31 October 1950 – 31 March 2016) was an Iraqi–British architect.
She was the first woman to receive the Pritzker Architecture Prize, in 2004. She received the UK's most prestigious architectural award, the Stirling Prize, in 2010 and 2011. In 2012, she was made a Dame by Elizabeth II for services to architecture, and in February, 2016, the month preceding her death, she became the first and only woman to be awarded the Royal Gold Medal from the Royal Institute of British Architects.





      She was described by The Guardian of London as the "Queen of the curve", who "liberated architectural geometry, giving it a whole new expressive identity". Her major works include the London Aquatics Centre for the 2012 Olympics, Michigan State University's Broad Art Museum in the US, the MAXXI Museum in Rome, the Guangzhou Opera House in China, and the Beijing Daxing International Airport in China. Some of her awards have been presented posthumously, including the statuette for the 2017 Brit Awards. Several of her buildings were still under construction at the time of her death, including the Daxing airport and the Al Wakrah Stadium in Qatar, a venue for the 2022 FIFA World Cup.

Famous Project: Heydar Aliyev Center in Baku, Azerbaijan (2007–2013)



3. Le Corbusier:


       Charles-Edouard Jeanneret (6 October 1887 – 27 August 1965), known as Le Corbusier, was a Swiss-French architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture. He was born in Switzerland and became a French citizen in 1930. His career spanned five decades, and he designed buildings in Europe, Japan, India, and North and South America.


       Dedicated to providing better living conditions for the residents of crowded cities, Le Corbusier was influential in urban planning, and was a founding member of the Congres International d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM). Le Corbusier prepared the master plan for the city of Chandigarh in India, and contributed specific designs for several buildings there, specially the government buildings.
       On 17 July 2016, seventeen projects by Le Corbusier in seven countries were inscribed in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites as The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement.

Famous Project: Villa Savoye



FATHER OF ARCHITECTURE

Louis Henry Sullivan


        Louis Henry Sullivan (September 3, 1856 – April 14, 1924) was an American architect, and has been called the "father of skyscrapers" and "father of modernism". He is considered by many as the creator of the modern skyscraper, was an influential architect and critic of the Chicago School, was a mentor to Frank Lloyd Wright, and an inspiration to the Chicago group of architects who have come to be known as the Prairie School.
       Along with Wright and Henry Hobson Richardson, Sullivan is one of "the recognized trinity of American architecture". The phrase "Form follows function" is attributed to him, although he credited the origin of the concept to an ancient architect whose origins were allegedly Italian. In 1944, Sullivan was the second architect to posthumously receive the AIA Gold Medal.


Early Life:

          Sullivan was born to a Swiss-born mother, nee Andrienne List (who had emigrated to Boston from Geneva with her parents and two siblings, Jenny, b. 1836, and Jules, b. 1841) and an Irish-born father, Patrick Sullivan. Both had immigrated to the United States in the late 1840s. He learned that he could both graduate from high school a year early and bypass the first two years at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by passing a series of examinations. Entering MIT at the age of sixteen, Sullivan studied architecture there briefly. After one year of study, he moved to Philadelphia and took a job with architect Frank Furness.


        The Depression of 1873 dried up much of Furness's work, and he was forced to let Sullivan go. Sullivan moved to Chicago in 1873 to take part in the building boom following the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. He worked for William LeBaron Jenney, the architect often credited with erecting the first steel frame building.
         After less than a year with Jenney, Sullivan moved to Paris and studied at the École des Beaux-Arts for a year. He returned to Chicago and began work for the firm of Joseph S. Johnston & John Edelman as a draftsman. Johnston & Edleman were commissioned for the design of the Moody Tabernacle, and had the interior decorative fresco secco stencils (stencil technique applied on dry plaster) designed by Sullivan. In 1879 Dankmar Adler hired Sullivan. A year later, Sullivan became a partner in that firm. This marked the beginning of Sullivan's most productive years.


Selected Projects:

  • Martin Ryerson Tomb, Graceland Cemetery, Chicago (1887).
  • Auditorium Building, Chicago (1889).
  • Carrie Eliza Getty Tomb, Graceland Cemetery, Chicago (1890).
  • Wainwright Building, St. Louis (1890).
  • Charlotte Dickson Wainwright Tomb, Bellefontaine Cemetery, St. Louis (1892), listed on the National Register of Historic Places is considered a major American architectural triumph, a model for ecclesiastical architecture, a "masterpiece", and has been called "the Taj Mahal of St. Louis." The family name appears nowhere on the tomb.
  • Union Trust Building (now 705 Olive), St. Louis (1893; street-level ornament heavily altered in 1924).
  • Guaranty Building (formerly Prudential Building), Buffalo (1894).

AWARDS IN ARCHITECTURE

1. Pritzker Architecture Prize

         The Pritzker Architecture Prize was founded by Jay A. Pritzker and his wife, Cindy, in 1979 to “honor a living architect or architects whose built work demonstrates a combination of those qualities of talent, vision, and commitment, which has produced consistent and significant contributions to humanity and the built environment through the art of architecture.” The award, sponsored by the Hyatt Foundation and funded by the Pritzker family, is an annual grant of US$100,000, a citation certificate and a bronze medallion. In 2016, the Chilean architect Alejandro Aravena was awarded the prize.


        The Executive Director Martha Thorne solicits nominations from a range of people, including past Laureates, academics, critics and others. In addition, any licensed applicant may submit an application for the award before the 1st of November every year. The independent jury of experts comprising of five to nine members are “recognized professionals in their own fields of architecture, business, education, publishing, and culture.”

2. The Aga Khan Award for Architecture

       The Aga Khan Award for Architecture (AKAA), established by Aga Khan IV in 1977, is awarded every three years to an architectural project that meets the needs and preferences of Islamic societies. The Award seeks to identify and encourage architectural concepts in the fields of community development, area conservation, contemporary design, preservation of the environment and landscape design. AKAA gives a monetary prize with a total value of US$ 1 million multiple projects, teams, and stakeholders.


3. AIA Gold Medal

       The Gold Medal is the highest annual honor awarded by the American Institute of Architects. It acknowledges an individual whose significant body of work has a lasting influence on architecture. Considered one of the most prestigious awards in the architecture world, the Gold Medal has been received by well renowned architects such as Frank Lloyd Wright, Frank Gehry, Julia Morgan, and Moshe Safdie.



4. RIBA Award

        The RIBA International Award is awarded by the Royal Institute of British Architects to buildings across the UK and around the world. The Award has been given annually over the last 50 years to people who achieved innovations in architecture, regardless of the form, size or budget. The RIBA International Award rewards “the excellent work being done by RIBA members around the world”.


5. UIA Gold Medal

        Since 1984 the organization also awards the UIA Gold Medal to honor an architect (or group of architects) having distinguished themselves through their work and professional practice by the quality of services rendered to man and society. 


       The UIA Gold Medal is awarded every three years and its winner honored during an official ceremony at the UIA world congress of architecture. In creating this distinction in 1984, the UIA Council hoped to invest it with the same prestige as the Nobel Prize in the areas of art, science, and peace. It is awarded to a living architect as a tribute to his/her achievements and the contributions made throughout his/her life and career to mankind, society, and the promotion of the art of architecture.




Friday, December 27, 2019

Architecture



What is Architecture ??

Architecture (Latin architectura, from the Greek arkhitekton "architect", from- "chief" and "creator") is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.

Architecture can mean:

  • A general term to describe buildings and other physical structures.
  • The art and science of designing buildings and non-building structures.
  • The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures.
  • A unifying or coherent form or structure.
  • Knowledge of art, science, technology, and humanity.

Philosophy of architecture:

The philosophy of architecture is a branch of philosophy of art, dealing with aesthetic value of architecture, its semantics and relations with development of culture.
Plato to Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze, Robert Venturi as well as many other philosophers and theoreticians, distinguish architecture from building, attributing the former to mental traits, and the latter to the divine or natural.
The Wittgenstein House is considered one of the most important examples of interactions between philosophy and architecture. Built by renowned Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, the house has been the subject of extensive research about the relationship between its stylistic features, Wittgenstein's personality, and his philosophy.